The History of Semarang


The History of Semarang



Period of Before 900

The region of Semarang by that time was including Valley of Ungaran in the north beach of Java. Along the beach involves area of Mrican, Mugas, Gunung Sawo, The west of Gajah Mungkur, the upper of Karangkumpul, Sampangan, Simongan, Krapyak and Jrakah. By that time there werea Indian Kingdom that was Bhumi Mataram and Cailendra located in the hinterland and having the other north harbor that was Ujung Negara (Batang), Semarang, Keling, Jepara and Juwono. Through these harbors the Kingdom of Indies Mataram could achieve the golden era. This was indicated by the big temples left by them and up to now we can see them.



Period of 900 - 1500

When the Kingdom of Demak Pajang, Semarang were recognized, indicated by the existence of big villages which was a housing powered by Ajar (the Leader of Hindu Ritual), they were Gisik Drono, Tirang Amper, Jurang Suru. Lembarapi, Tinjo-rnoyo, Gajah Mungkur and Gunung Batu. By that time Kiai Pandan Arang (Sun an Tembayat) appointed by government of Demak Kingdom asor Bupati (leader of a district) of Semarang and the first time declared Tirang Amper as a central of Moslem teaching activities. In 1498 this -was functioned as Trading center of Demak Kingdom as well as spreading the Moslem.



Period of 1500 - 1700

This period is the early of the formation Semarang city, Semarang by that time known as an important harbor. This was proven by the coming of the foreigner to Semarang such/ as" China, Malay, Arabian/ Persia and at last Dutch (in 17 century). In the next develop ment the foreign nations made a kind of housing according to the group of ethnic. That groups were: in the area of Semarang River estuary for the Dutch and Malay, around the Raden Patah Road for Chinese and Javanese were placed along the Semarang River. The social infrastruc-tures are Mosque, Kabupaten as central of Government and the Dutch Defense Fortress on the mouth of Semarang River. When it was not under the Kasunanan Surakarta government, in 1618 Semarang were under the power of Dutch. Because of strategic place and had an important function Semarang had been changed as a Military defense and trade of the Dutch (VOC).



Period of 1700 - 1906

Semarang area appear as a formnof a city. The housing /werR extended by existence of Kampung Jawa at Kaligawe, Pengapon and Poncol, Kampung China at Bubakan, Kampung Melayu, at Melayu darat. It was developed more by the construc-ting of Kota Benteng/City of Fortress (at Ewopeecshe-Buurt). This Fortress, were thecentral of development in Semarang city located on Raden Patah Road and as the extent of Fortress of Lima Ujung at Sleko. While the social livingof the people of Semarang by that time was dominated by trading activities and Military defense of Dutch, with the facilities such as Mosque, Chinese temple, market and environmental road. Transportation route were using the flow of Semarang River and its branches. Semarang were more extended with the activities of the Dutch Military defense movement from Jepara to Semarang in 1708. This had changed the status of physically function as welL as social life in Semarang. Because of these VOC utilized Semarang as acentral of colonial political activities as well as the second city after Batavia, by moving their Fortress and Office from Jepara to Semarang. In the middle of eighteenth (I 'h) centuries, the development of Semarang area were more gradually. This were indicated by the growing of offices of Netherlands E. Indies, trading offices, other social facilities etc. in that Netherlands Fortress. The Netherlands Fortress which was called as EUROPESCHE BUURT were built to be the Fortress city with five points of defense and inside the Fortress were built the road with Grid Iron pattern. While the outside of the Fortress became their hinterland. Therefore the government was divided into two parts, the Netherlands Fortress Governor area and hinterland area occupied by Native. This condition were apparently making the function of Semarang, as an administrative government city for the North Java area, trading city and defense / military city. To anticipate the extent of the city the wall defense city of den Europeesche Buurt was demolished and the Netherlands were building the villas at Bojong and Randusari. The native citizendeveloped the village at Poncol area, Randusari, Depok and the other areas The stone road were built, such as Poncol Road (Daen dies) Bojon g, Depok Road, Mataram Road, Bulu and the environment roads, including Jepara which was the primary harbor in Central Java since the Kingdom of Demak.
The very high Commercial position of Semarang this really made the need of sufficient transportation infrastructures. For Semarang were not Sufficiently served with traditional transportation only.
Based on the research of Stiejes the most effective was train transportation infrastructure. Then on 16'h of July 1864 the first railway construction in Indonesia were started from Semarang with the rail station at Tambaksari to the Tanggung station about 14 Kilo meters long. Then it was continued to Kedungjati and Solo, up to the 1872 to Yogyakarta.
The railway station weregrowing rapidly and this make a special impact to the export value which was growing rapidly too. Therefore, the Netherlands Indesche Spoorwagen (NIS) was entitled to construct the railway and its office were in Lawang Sewu this extent its steel way network to Surabaya and Magelang.
While Semarang Cheribon Stoom tram Maatschappij (SCS) constructed the railway of Semarang - Cirebon. And the company of Semarang Jolana Stoorntram /Matschappij (SJS) constructed the railway of Semarang - Kudus - Juwono- Lasern. Otherwise, there were Serayu Dal Stoorntram Maatchappij who constructed the Railway of Wonosobo-Purwokerto.
Soon afterward SCS, SJS and SDS were combined as one, with its central office was at Jl. Thamrin. With the construction of the Railway described above the transportation volume were multiply increased.
In 1900 the export valuewere increased more rapidly, the connection between Semarang and its surrounding regions were easily be reached caused by the railway network. This made Semarang, a trading city were getting richer. This made the railway construction within Java and Madura were developed. When in 1867 the long of railway was about 25 kilometers, while in 1920 it reached 5,016 kilometers.
The railway system were really influenced toward Semarang position as the central df trade in the Central Java. Thus, in order to imbalance the speed of the railway construction, therefore, in 1875 were constructed a harbor in Semarang. The water gates were constructed to reduce the stacked amount of mud on the ports.
By constructing the Semarang Harbor the activities of trade in Semarang Harbor were growing rapidly and the position of Semarang as a trading city were absolutely good.
In 1884 Semarang were starting to connect the phone lines with Jakarta and Surabaya. While the initial of the post m Semarang were the one of three post office constructed by Netherlands in Java they were Batavia and Surabaya.
The office constructions and other city facilities were exist since the city was built, it implied that the position of Semarang by that time were very important city. Because Semarang location was very strategic in the middle of economy traffic in the/Java Island.
In 1891 in the era of R.M. Tumenggung Purboningrat's government the Moslem cultural was reestablished. To initiate the (Ramadhan) fasting month there were a traditional ceremony of Dug deran. Dug meant the sound of Bedug (large drum suspended horizontally at mosque) Der meant the sound of Cannon. The celebration which had been the character of Semarang were also made lively by some children plays which is popular as "warak ngendog".



Period of 1906 - 1942

This period was the era of Sernarang municipal governmental (Stadsgernmete Van Semarang) which was officially declared on the IS' of April 1906 and governed under the Staadblad No. 120 year of 1906. Since that day Semarang was separated from the Regency and had the boundaries of Municipal government.
Since that day Semarang initiated to be governed in the development administration system. The development direction was proposed to the Netherlands housing completed by city facilities and authority they were sport gymnasium, shooting field, city park. New road network, drainage on east and west Flood Canal, Siranda Canal and CB2 Canal. As well as Wijaya Kusuma Channel and building of Public Toilet / Bath room etc. The construction of harbor facilities, Railway station. were continued to be built.
The function of city became more extensive, other than trading city, military governmental as well as became an education and tourism city
The more expansive Semarang city was. on the other hand, there had grown to be one of the central of politic movement against the Netherlands. As a result, The Netherlands' politic compelled the growth of Semarang.



Period of 1942 - 1976

On this period the Second World War was exploded, Semarang was empowered by Japan. That era was a steady era for Semarang. Because all of the activities focused on the necessity of Japan military. After the time of Independence of Indonesia Semarang had been starting to fix its self, especially since 1950. Then the Semarang region still based on the gemente region.
This growing progress, the most rapid process were the housing area growth in city area, they were Krobokan,Harbor, Jangli and Mrican. The growing facilities to support the trading sector were the construction of Johar Market. Bulu Market, Karangayu, Bargo, Langgar etc. As well as transportation infrastructure. Bus Station Minibus Industry at Srondol and the biggest in the city was established again. Seeing the rapid growth of city, then 19'h of July 1976, Semarang was extent to Mijen, Gunung pati, Tugu dan Genuk territorial. While supporting the more designed city development it was formulated Primary Planning of Semarang City (Rencana Induk Kota Semarang (RIG), as a guidelines of the next development of city.d of Jalan Pemuda, one of the city's major shopping streets.
Semarang


Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the capital of the province of Central Java. It has an area of 373.67 Km² and approximately 1.5 million people making it the Indonesia's fifth largest city. Semarang is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important port today, the city is known in Indonesia for its large ethnically Chinese population. The name of the city, Semarang, may have originated from the concatenation of the words "asem" (tamarind) and "arang" (rare). Another version is that Semarang is originated from Chinese word Sam Po Lang (San Bao Loong), meaning the city of Sam Po (Admiral Zheng He).

History

Semarang's history dates back to the ninth century, when it was known as Bergota. By the end of fifteenth century, an Arab mullah with the name of Kyai Pandan Arang founded a village and an Islamic boarding school in this place. On 2 May 1547, after consulting Sunan Kalijaga, Sultan Hadiwijaya of Pajang declared Kyai Pandan Arang the first bupati (regent) of Semarang, thus culturally and politically, on this day Semarang was born.
In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt. VOC and later the Dutch East Indies government established tobacco plantations in the region, and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre.
Beginning in the 1920s the city became a center of leftist and nationalist activism. Particularly with the founding in the city of the Communist Party of Indonesia, Semarang became known as the "Red City". The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942 during Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor (Shiko) from Japan and two vice governors (Fuku Shiko), one from Japan and one from local. After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the capital of Central Java province.


Administration
The city of Semarang divided into 16 districts (kecamatan) and 177 sub-districts of (kelurahan). The 16 districts are: West Semarang, East Semarang, Central Semarang, North Semarang, South Semarang, Candisari, Gajahmungkur, Gayamsari, Pedurungan, Genuk, Tembalang, Banyumanik, Gunungpati, Mijen, Ngaliyan, and Tugu.
A Bupati used to be the head of government in Semarang until 1906. After 1906, the city of Semarang was headed by a Mayor (Walikota).
The list of Mayor of Semarang after Indonesian independence:
1. Moch. lchsan
2. Koesoebiyono (1949 - 1 July 1951)
3. RM Hadisoebeno Sosrowardoyo (1 July 1951 - 1 Janu 1958)
4. Abdulmadjid Djojoadiningrat (7 January 1958 - 1 January 1960)
5. RM Soebagyono Tjondrokoesoemo (1 January 1961 - 26 April 1964)
6. Wuryanto (25 April 1964 - 1 September 1966)
7. Soeparno (1 September 1966 - 6 March 1967)
8. R. Warsito Soegiarto (6 March 1967 - 2 January 1973)
9. Hadijanto (2 January 1973 - 15 January 1980)
10. Imam Soeparto Tjakrajoeda (15 January 1980 - 19 January 1990)
11. Soetrisno Suharto (19 January 1990 - 19 January 2000)
12. Sukawi Sutarip (19 January 2000 - present)

Geography
Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java. The northern part of the city is built on the coastal plain while the southern parts, known as Candi Lama and Candi Baru, are on higher ground. Major landmarks in town include Simpang Lima, a large five-way intersection surrounded by shopping malls and other commercial establishments.

Culture
The population of Semarang is predominantly Javanese, though with smaller numbers of people from many regions in Indonesia. The city is known for its large ethnically Chinese population. The main languages spoken are Indonesian and Javanese.

Temples and monuments
As a result of its large ethnically Chinese population, the city boasts several Chinese temples. These include Sam Po Kong (Gedung Batu), built in honour of the Chinese Great Admiral Zheng He who visited the area in 1405, and Tay Kak Sie Temple. Blenduk Church, a 1753 Protestant church built by Dutch, is located in the old town (called "Oudstad"). Tugu Muda (Youth Monument), a monument to heroes of Indonesia's independence struggle, is located in front of Gedung Lawang Sewu, at the end of Jalan Pemuda, one of the city's major shopping streets.
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